Corinne H. Rocca, MPH, PhD,
of the University of California, San Francisco, led a psychometric analysis of the LMUP
among Tamil and Kannada-speaking women in Bangalore, India.
The evaluation was conducted as a part of Dr. Rocca’s doctoral dissertation
work at the University of California, Berkeley.
The study was carried out in collaboration with
Suneeta Krishnan, PhD
(Principal Investigator of the underlying study);
Geraldine Barrett, PhD
(original developer of the LMUP); and
Mark Wilson, PhD (expert in quantitative measurement in social science research).
The details of the study and findings can be found in the
In brief, the LMUP was administered 971 times to young married women, aged 16-25 years,
living in slum communities in Bangalore, India.
All women were participating in a two-year (2005-08),
NICHD-funded longitudinal cohort study evaluating the relationships between
numerous aspects of gender-based power, such as women’s employment, and reproductive health outcomes.
The study used two approaches to measure evaluation,
a classical test theory-based approach and item response modeling,
to assess the acceptability, reliability, internal validity and
external validity of the LMUP for use in the Indian context.
Prior to administering the LMUP, the instrument was translated into Tamil and Kannada,
the local languages in Bangalore; questions were back-translated to English.
All items were pilot tested for comprehension.
Minor modifications were necessary to accommodate the population and context.
A comparison between the original UK version of the LMUP and the version used in this study in
English is available.
Tamil and Kannada versions can be downloaded for future use and are scored in the same way as the original LMUP.
Comparison of the LMUP with the Indian versions (pdf)
The LMUP translated into Tamil (pdf)
The LMUP translated into Kannada (pdf)