The London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy (LMUP)            

Evaluation of the LMUP in the Chichewa language in Malawi
Dr Jennifer Hall MBChB MPH MFPH of the Institute for Global Health and Institute for Women’s Health at University College London (UCL) led the translation and validation of the Chichewa version of the LMUP in Mchinji District, Malawi. The validation was conducted as part of Dr Hall’s PhD research on pregnancy intention and maternal and neonatal health outcomes and was done in collaboration with Geraldine Barrett, PhD (original developer of the LMUP) with supervision from Professor Stephenson and and Dr Copas of UCL and Dr Address Malata of the University of Malawi.


Full details of the translation and validation can be found in the open access publication:

Hall J, Barrett G, Mbwana N, Copas A, Malata A, Stephenson J. 2013 Understanding pregnancy planning in a low-income country setting: validation of the London measure of unplanned Pregnancy in Malawi BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 13:200 Abstract and full pdf

In summary, after a process of adaption for interviewer-administration rather than self-completion, translation, back-translation and cognitive interviewing, the Chichewa LMUP was field tested on 125 pregnant women aged 15 and over attending one of three antenatal clinics in Mchinji District during one week in October 2012. Basic socio-demographic information was asked in addition to the six LMUP questions. All women were invited to return to the same clinic the following week for re-test; 75 women came and were not statistically significantly different from those who did not return. Classical test theory analyses were used to assess the acceptability, reliability, stability and validity of the Chichewa LMUP.

The Chichewa LMUP was found to be a valid measure of pregnancy intention and can be downloaded for future use in research and / or surveillance in Malawi. It is scored in the same way as the original LMUP.

The LMUP translated into Chichewa

The LMUP translated into Chichewa (in English)

              copyright © Dr Geraldine Barrett