The London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy (LMUP)            

Studies using the LMUP
A number of researchers and academics are using the LMUP (see below for details). Where publications are available from these studies they are listed below:

Dr Jenny Hall (UCL) has recently completed a study in Malawi examining the relationship between pregnancy intention and key maternal and neonatal outcomes. The LMUP was used to assess pregnancy intention. The evaluation of the LMUP in translation was published in 2013 (Further information). The findings from the main study are now being published:

Hall JA, Barrett G, Copas A, Stephenson J. 2017 London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy: guidance for its use as an outcome measure Patient Related Outcome Measures 8:43-56 Abstract and full pdf

Hall JA, Barrett G, Phiri T, Copas A, Malata A, Stephenson J. 2016 Prevalence and determinants of unintended pregnancy in Mchinji District, Malawi: Using a conceptual hierarchy to inform analysis PlosOne 11(10): e0165621. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0165621 Abstract and full pdf

Hall J, Barrett G, Mbwana N, Copas A, Malata A, Stephenson J. 2013 Understanding pregnancy planning in a low-income country setting: validation of the London measure of unplanned pregnancy in Malawi BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 13:200 Abstract and full pdf


Dr Garipy and colleagues used the LMUP in a study of pregnant women (recruited via abortion and pregnancy testing services) to examine the relationship between women's pregnancy contexts and health-related quality of life:

Gariepy A, Lundsberg LS, Vilardo N, Stanwood N, Yonkers K, Schwarz EB. 2017 Pregnancy context and women's health related quality of life Contraception Online first Contraception (Abstract)


Dr Joline Goossens and colleagues used the LMUP in a study of postpartum women in Flanders, Belgium:

Goossens J, Van Den Branden Y, Van der Sluys L, Delbaere I, Van Hecke A, Verhaeghe S, Beeckman D. 2016 The prevalence of unplanned pregnancy ending in birth, associated factors and health outcomes Human Reproduction 31;12: 2821-2833 (Abstract)


The Turnaway Study. The LMUP was used in the UCSF ‘Turnaway Study’, a prospective, longitudinal study of women who underwent or were denied an abortion. (Further information): Papers reporting LMUP findings include:

Roberts SCM, Subbaraman MS, Delucchi KL, Wilsnack SC, Foster DG. 2016 Moderators and mediators of the relationship between receiving versus being denied a pregnancy termination and subsequent binge drinking Drug and Alcohol Dependence 159:117-24 (Abstract)

Rocca et al. 2015 Decision rightness and emotional responses to abortion in the United States: a Longitudinal Study PloS ONE 10(7): e0128832. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0128832 (Abstract)

Roberts, S. C. M., Wilsnack, S. C., Foster, D. G. and Delucchi, K. L. (2014), Alcohol Use Before and During Unwanted Pregnancy Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 38:2844-2852. (Abstract)

Rocca CH, Kimport K, Gould H, Foster DG. 2013 Women's Emotions One Week After Receiving or Being Denied an Abortion in the United States. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 45:122–131. (Abstract)

Biggs A, Gould H, Greene Foster D. 2013 Understanding why women seek abortions in the US BMC Women's Health 13:29 (Abstract and full text)

Robert SCM, Avalos LA, Sinkford D, Greene Foster D. 2012 Alcohol, tobacco and drug use as reasons for abortion Alcohol and Alcoholism 47;6:640-684 (Abstract)


Dr Ana Borges and colleagues evaluated the LMUP in Brazilian Portuguese translation:

Borges ALV, Barrett G, dos Santos OA, Nascimento NC, Cavalhieri FB, Fujimori E. 2016 Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy in Brazilian Portuguese BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 16:244 (Abstract and full pdf)


Dr Paula Castano and Prof Carolyn Westhoff, Colombia University, used the LMUP in US-English and Spanish translation in 2005 in a study of women seeking pregnancy testing at a family planning clinic. Dr Aiken led an analysis of these data in 2016. Barrett et al commented on the analysis in 2017:

Aiken ARA, Westhoff CL, Trussell J, Castano PM. 2016 Comparison of a timing-based measure of unintended pregnancy and the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 48;3:139-146 (Abstract)

Barrett G, Hall JA, Stephenson J. 2017 Measuring unintended pregnancy: the complexity of comparison Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 49;1:69-70 (Letter)


Major Ryan J. Heitmann and colleagues used the LMUP in a survey of U.S. female service members and military health care beneficiaries aged 18-42 across three tertiary military health centres:

Heitmann RJ, Batig AL, Levy G, Novotney J, Grubbs C, Batig TS, Gobem JM, Hemman E, Christy AY, Hill MJ. 2016 Unintended pregnancy in the military health care system: who is really at risk? Military Medicine 181;10:1370-1374 (Abstract)


Dr Liauw and colleagues carried out a study examining the contraceptive needs of women in a correctional facility in Ontario, Canada. They used the LMUP to assess the intention status of women's most recent pregnancy:

Liauw J, Foran J, Dineley B, Costescu D, Kouyoumdjian FG. 2016 The unmet contraceptive need of incarcerated women in Ontario Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada 38;9820-826 (Abstract)


Dr Cheney and colleagues used the LMUP in with women attending an Early Pregnancy Assessment Service (EPAS) in Australia. The EPAS reviews women who present in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy with bleeding and/or pain or with other concerns.

Cheney K, Sim KA, D'Souza M, Pelosi M, Black KI. 2016 Unintended pregnancy amongst an early pregnancy clinic cohort: identifying opportunities for preventative health interventions Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 56(4):426-31 (Abstract)


A UK Department of Health funded study on pre-pregnancy health and care, led by Prof. Judith Stephenson at Institute for Women's Health, UCL, used the LMUP with pregnant women and their partners:

Bye A, Shawe J, Stephenson J, Bick D, Brima N, Micali N. 2016 Differences in pre-conception and pregnancy healthy lifestyle advice by maternal BMI: Findings from a cross sectional survey Midwifery 42:38-45 (Abstract)

Stephenson et al. 2014 How do women prepare for pregnancy? Preconception experiences of women attending antenatal services and views of health professionals PlosOne 9(7): e103085. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0103085 (Abstract)


Dr Sara Yeatman and colleagues carried out a study of child and parental health in Malawi, using the LMUP. They presented their findings at the Society of Family Planning conference, the abstract of which has been published:

Yeatman S, and Smith-Greenaway E. 2016 The relationship between pregnancy plannedness and parental and child health in Malawi Contraception 94(4):424 (Abstract)


Prof. James Trussell and colleagues assessed pregnancy intention among women attending antenatal clinics and abortion services:

Bexhell H, Guthrie K, Cleland K, Trussell J. 2016 Unplanned pregnancy and contraceptive use in Hull and East Yorkshire Contraception 93:233-235 (Abstract)


The UK's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles, carried out by Prof Anne Johnson (UCL), Dr Cath Mercer (UCL), Dr Pam Sonneneberg (UCL), Dr Andrew Copas (UCL), Prof Kaye Wellings (LSHTM), Wendy MacDowall (LSHTM), Bob Erens (NatCen), Healther Wardle (NatCen), Prof Catherine Ison (Health Protection Agency), Prof Frederick Wu (University of Manchester), used the LMUP in its data collection in relation to all pregnancies reported in the last year. (Further information about Natsal) The papers reporting LMUP findings include:

Palmer MJ, Clarke L, Ploubidis GB, Mercer CH, Gibson LJ, Johnson AM, Copas AJ, Wellings K. 2016 Is "sexual competence" at first heterosexual intercourse associated with subsequent sexual health status The Journal of Sex Research (Abstract)

Wellings et al. 2013 The prevalence of unplanned pregnancy and associated factors in Britain: findings from the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) Lancet 382(9907):1807-16 (Abstract)


Dr Abdolreza Shaghaghi and colleagues evaluated the LMUP in Persian translation in Iran as part of a wider study assessing unmet need for family planning:

Roshanaei S, Shaghaghi A, Jafarabadi MA, and Kousha A. 2015 Measuring unintended pregnancies in postpartum Iranian women: validation of the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 21(8):572-578 (pdf)


Dr Ana Luiza Vilea Borges used the LMUP in a study of contraceptive use by women following an induced or spontaneous abortion:

Borges ALV, OlaOlorun F, Fujimori E, Akiko L, Hoga K, Tsui AO. 2015 Contrceptive use following spontaneous and induced abortion and its association with family planning services in primary health care: results from a Brazilian longitudinal study Reproductive Health 12:94 (Abstract and pdf)


Dr Ginger Poulton and colleagues used the LMUP with women attending methodone clinics in a study assessing their reproductive health and choices:

Poulton G, Parlier AB, Scott KR, Fagan EB, Galvin SL. 2015 Contraceptive choices for reproductive age women at methadone clinics in Western North Carolina MAHEC Online Journal of Research 2:2 (pdf)


The LMUP was used in the Life Study, the UK's ambitious new cohort study which aimed to recruit 80,000 pregnant women. The study, led by Prof. Carol Dezateux at Institute of Child Health, UCL closed early due to difficulties in recruitment of participants. (Further information)


The UK ‘Contessa’ study, a longitudinal study of women's contraceptive use, used the LMUP in its data collection:

Wellings et al. 2015 Stopping and switching contraceptive methods: findings from Contessa, a prospective longitudinal study of women of reproductive age in England Contraception 91:57-66 (Abstract)


A Swedish study of antenatal clinic attenders used the LMUP in its data collection:

Bodin et al. 2015 Coherence of pregnancy planning within couples expecting a child Midwifery (Abstract)


An Argentinian study of women with and without bipolar disorder used the LMUP in its data collection:

Marengo et al. 2015 Unplanned pregnancies and reproductive health among women with bipolar disorder Journal of Affective Disorders 178:201-205 (Abstract)


A U.S. study of pregnancy intention among HIV-positive women used the LMUP in their data collection:

Rahangdale et al. 2014 Pregnancy intentions among women living with HIV in the United States Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome 65(3):306-311 (Abstract)


The LMUP was used in a study of antenatal clinic attenders in Papua New Ginuea. (The full LMUP was used in the pilot study then item 6 was dropped in the main study because of low endorsement. Technically, this invalidates the LMUP, but score patterns can be seen.)

Sanga et al. 2014 Unintended pregnancy amongst women attending antenatal clinics at the Port Moresby General Hospital Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 54(4):360-365 (Abstract)


A pilot randomized trial of an intervention to prevent HIV in young women in Zimbabwe used the LMUP. Little information is given about how the LMUP was adapted for use in the study:

Dunbar et al. 2014 The SHAZ! Project: Results from a pilot randomized trial of a structural intervention to prevent HIV among adolescent women in Zimbabwe PloS ONE 9(11) : e113621. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0113621 (Abstract)


A Danish study of pre-pregnancy health and care used the LMUP in their data collection:

Backhausen et al. 2013 Pregnancy planning and lifestyle prior to conception and during early pregnancy among Danish women European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care (Abstract)


An Australian study of women attending an antenatal clinic used the LMUP in their data collection:

Rassi A, Wattimena J, Black K. 2013 Pregnancy intention in an urban Australian antenatal population Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 37:568-73 (Abstract)


A UK study of women attending for abortion used the LMUP:

Cameron ST, Glasier A. 2013 Identifying women in need of further discussion about the decision to have an abortion and eventual outcome Contraception 88;1:128-132. (Abstract)


A Brazilian study, led by Dr Ana Luiza Vilela Borges, has used the LMUP:

Borges et al. 2011 Pregnancy planning: prevalence and associated aspects Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP 45:2 (Abstract)


Corinne Rocca MPH PhD of University of California, San Francisco led an evaluation of the LMUP in Tamil and Kannada translation in Bangalore, India (Further information):

Rocca CH, Krishnan S, Barrett G, and Wilson M. 2010 Measuring pregnancy planning: an assessment of the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy among urban, south Indian women. Demographic Research 23(11):293-334 Abstract and full pdf Further Information


Diane Morof MD MSc, Centers for Disease Control and University of California, San Francisco, has led an evaluation of the LMUP in US English and Spanish (Further information):

Morof D, Steinauer J, Haider S, Liu S, Darney P, Barrett G. 2012 Evaluation of the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy in the a United States population of women. PloS One 7(4) Article number e35381 (Abstract and full pdf)


Skinner R, Doherty D, and Lewis L, of the University of Western Australia, carried out a longitudinal study in Perth, Australia, called, "Why do teenage mothers fall pregnant so quickly? Exploring the bio-psychosocial antecedents of repeat teenage pregnancy". The LMUP was used in data collection with mothers during pregnancy.

Lewis et al. 2010 Predictors of sexual intercourse and rapid-repeat pregnancy among teenage mothers: an Australian prospective longitudinal study Medical Journal of Australia 193(6):338-42 (Abstract)


A Canadian study of couples expecting their first child use the LMUP in their data collection:

Lachance-Grzela M and Bouchard G. 2009 The well-being of cohabiting and married couples during pregnancy: Does pregnancy planning matter? Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 26(2-3):141-159 (Abstract)

Bouchard G. 2011 The role of psychosocial variables in prenatal attachment: an examination of moderational effects Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology 29(3):197-207 (Abstract)


Shallimar Jones, of Michigan State University, used the LMUP in her doctoral research on stress during pregnancy, completed in 2007.


Fatim Lakha and Prof Anna Glasier MD FRCOG used the LMUP in a study looking at unplanned pregnancy and emergency contraception use among pregnant women in Edinburgh, Scotland.

Lakha F, Glasier A. 2006 Unintended pregnancy and use of emergency contraception among a large cohort of women attending for antenatal care or abortion in Scotland Lancet 368:1782-87 (Abstract)


Suzanne Cater and Lester Coleman PhD of the Trust for the Study of Adolescence carried out a study, funded by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, of 'planned' pregnancy among teenagers. The LMUP was used as a screening questionnaire to identify potential interviewees. The report presents the LMUP data and provides a rich qualitative account of the reasons for teenage 'planned' pregnancies:

Cater S, Coleman L. 2006 'Planned' Teenage Pregnancy: Perspectives of young parents from disadvantaged backgrounds. Bristol: Policy Press (pdf)

Coleman L, Cater S. 2006 ‘Planned’ teenage pregnancy: perspectives of young women from disadvantaged backgrounds in England Journal of Youth Studies 9(5):593-614 (Abstract)


Catherine Schünmann MD, and Prof Anna Glasier MD FRCOG, Edinburgh, used a modified version of the LMUP in a randomised controlled trial of contraceptive advice at the time of abortion. G Barrett's comment on the unevaluated modified measure and the author's response were published in January 2007.

Schünmann C, and Glasier A. 2006 Measuring pregnancy intention and its relationship with contraceptive use among women undergoing therapeutic abortion Contraception 73:520-524. (Abstract)

Barrett G. 2007 Letter to the Editor Contraception 75:79 (Letter)

Schünmann C. 2007 Response to Letter to the Editor Contraception 75:79


Prof Kaye Wellings, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and colleagues used the LMUP in a survey component of the Teenage Pregnancy Strategy Evaluation. The LMUP findings are presented on page 63 and 64 of the final report and in corresponding sections in the earlier annual reports.

Wellings K et al. 2005 Teenage Pregnancy Strategy Evaluation: Final Report Synthesis. London: LSHTM (Report)

Routine data collection

The LMUP was used by the U.S. California Maternal and Infant Health Assessement (MIHA) survey in 2008 and 2009. (Further information)