The London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy (LMUP)            

Ensuring the LMUP is valid

For anyone who is new to the use of psychometrically-evaluated measures, there are some guidelines that are normally followed. Ideally, researchers use a version of the LMUP that has already been validated for the context/setting/language they are working in. If such a validated LMUP version exists, it is important to use the version of the LMUP as it was validated, i.e. use all the questions, in the same order, with the same wording in which they were validated.

If, for the context/setting/language of interest, a validated version of the LMUP does not exist, it is possible to translate the LMUP into new languages and to make cultural adaptations so the measure is suitable for the new population or country context. The most usual cultural adaptation is to item 6 (pre-conceptual preparations) - see the Indian and Malawi translations for examples. When a language or cultural adaptation has been made, it is normal for the psychometric properties of the new version of the LMUP to be established. If you need help or advice on your translation or use of the LMUP please email us.


Guidance on translation/cultural adaptation of a measure

Guidance on translation or cultural adaptation of a measure is available from a variety of sources. One useful guide is from WHO's Substance Abuse directorate. Box G of the COSMIN Checklist also contains criteria for evaluating cultural adaptations of instruments. For a more general overview of patient reported outcome measures, read the FDA's Guidance.


Translations not yet evaluated

The version of the LMUP below has been produced through translation and back-translation but has not yet been used in data collection or evaluated.

Russian (Word doc)


Translation companies

Translation companies that we have used in the past (for the LMUP and other studies) and that we would recommend are below.

BeTranslated (a variety of European and Asian languages)

TalkRussian (Russian)

Twigg's Translations (German)

              copyright © Dr Geraldine Barrett