The London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy (LMUP)            

Translations and different modes of administration

Psychometrically-evaluated measures may be translated and used with new populations. The first step in using a measure in translation is to have it translated into the new language by a native speaker of the new language. The second step is to have the translation independently re-translated back into the original language by a native speaker of the original language, and the third step is to compare the two translations with the original and agree a final translated version. The new translation is normally pre-tested, usually with cognitive interviews. The psychometric properties of the new translated version of the measure then have to be established.

Necessary cultural adaptations may also be made to a measure. With the LMUP the most usual change is adapt item 6 (pre-pregnancy preparations) to list pre-pregnancy actions that are locally appropriate (see, for example, the Indian and Malawi validations).

Translations with completed evaluations

Saudi Arabia Civil Flag An Arabic, self-completion version of the LMUP has been evaluated in Saudi Arabia. (Further information)

A Chichewa, interviewer-administered version of the LMUP has been evaluated in Malawi (Further information)

A Dutch/Flemish, self-completion version of the LMUP has been evaluated in Belgium (Further information)

A Persian, interviewer-administered version of the LMUP has been evaluated in Iran (Further information)

A Portuguese, interviewer-administered version of the LMUP has been evaluated in Brazil. (Further information)

India Flag Tamil and Kannada, interviewer-administered versions of the LMUP were evaluated in India. (Further information)

An Urdu, interviewer-administered version of the LMUP has been evaluated in Pakistan (Further information)

US-English and US-Spanish, self-completion versions of the LMUP have been evaluated in the US. (Further information)

Translations under evaluation and/or unpublished

Dr Chelsea Morroni, Dr Jenny Hall, Dr Geraldine Barrett (UCL) and Botswana colleagues are evaluating the LMUP in Botswana.

Frances Ampt, Prof Stanley Luchters and colleagues (Burnet University, Australia) are evaluating the LMUP in local languages as part of the WHISPER trial which aims to reduce unintended pregnancies among female sex workers in Kenya.

Karla Flores and Prof Luciana Ramos Lira (Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatria) and Zenaida Martinez and Prof Roger Rochat (Emory University) are evaluating the LMUP in various translations within Mexico.

The LMUP is under evaluation in Nepal in two studies, one led by Dr Naomi Saville from UCL and one by Dr Corinne Rocca, UCSF.

Dr Nataliya Brima and Dr Jenny Hall (UCL) are evaluating the LMUP in local languages in Sierra Leone.

Dr Elizabeth Ernstoff (University of Cape Town), Dr Chelsea Morroni (UCL), Dr Deborah Constant (UCT), Dr Jenny Hall (UCL) and Dr Geraldine Barrett (UCL) are evaluating the LMUP in Xhosa and Afrikaans in South Africa. (Further information)

Dr Jayani Wickramarathna is evaluating the LMUP among pregnant women attending an the antenatal clinic at the Colombo North Teaching Hospital, Ragama, Sri Lanka

Meagan Chuey and Dr Lisa Kane Low (University of Michigan) are evaluating the LMUP in Arabic with Syrian refugees in the U.S.

Dr Diane Morof and colleagues (CDC) are evaluating the LMUP in Swahili translation as part of a project to reduce maternal deaths in Tanzania.

Dr Justine Bukenya and colleagues, Makerere University, are evaluating a version of the LMUP for use with sex workers in Uganda

Modes of administration

Some of the above translations have also changed mode of administration, usually because of levels of literacy in the target population. One study, the Contessa Study in the UK, has carried out a telephone interviewer-administered (or CATI) version of the LMUP. This version of the LMUP has not been evaluated. Further information can be found in NatCen’s technical report from page 50 (Contessa Technical Report)

Translations not yet evaluated

The versions of the LMUP below have been produced through translation and back-translation but have not yet been used in data collection or evaluated.

French (Word doc)

Russian (Word doc)

Guidance on translation/cultural adaptation of a measure

Guidance on translation or cultural adaptation of a measure is available from a variety of sources. One useful guide is from WHO's Substance Abuse directorate. Box G of the COSMIN Checklist also contains criteria for evaluating cultural adaptations of instruments.

Other translations

If you have translated the LMUP and are using it in your own study and would like it to be included here, please contact Geraldine Barrett.

The LMUP has been used in other languages (although not necessarily evaluated). See Studies using the LMUP

Translation companies

Translation companies that we have used in the past (for the LMUP and other studies) and that we would recommend are below.

BeTranslated (a variety of European and Asian languages)

TalkRussian (Russian)

Twigg's Translations (German)