|Evaluation of the LMUP in Ethiopia|
Olani et al translated and evaluated the LMUP among 320 women attending antenatal services in Ethiopia:
Five of the six LMUP items of the Olani et al Amharic LMUP performed very well. Item 1 (contraception) was problematic, which we comment on (see below). We recommend item 1 is re-developed and evaluated as part of future use of this LMUP version which otherwise performed well:
Separately from Olani et al, Karp et al evaluated the LMUP in Ethiopia in the Gates-funded Performance Monitoring Action Ethiopia (PMA-Ethiopia) project. They translated the LMUP into three languages (Amharic, Tigrinya, and Afan Oromo) although the psychometric properties of the individual language versions are not presented or evaluated separately. There were also substantial changes to the question order and the presentation of questions of the LMUP in the PMA-Ethiopia questionnaire (in particular, there was considerable intermingling of other survey questions), both of which would have an impact on the way the LMUP performed and are against recommended best-practice when using psychometric measures. Karp et al recommend using four items of the LMUP instead of six. We urge caution on this recommendation given the lack of best-practice methodology for producing a short-form measure and the lack of best-practice in translating and presenting the original six-items of the LMUP.